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    + bsinvest.biz Monitored Since: 2019-12-08 (243 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 2.20% every calendar day for 20 days, principal returned
Program Description : A Technology that offers its investors In Cryptocurrencies Registered in Hong Kong, our company practices strict policies and have all the employees abide by the legal rules to be assured of providing our clients with a sense of security and reliability. So if low cost investment services with reliability is what you've been hunting for, the wait is over. Founded in 2011, we decided to take another step in the world of technology by offering you the opportunity of trading in stock markets using cryptocurrency online. The best part about dealing in this form is that it's completely transactional and you can enjoy the price changes in moments. As we all know the market of cryptocurrency is definitely expanding and with that, we are now dealing with a bunch of well informed online traders. Thus, their testimonials towards our company make us stronger in the trade. We are super stoked to have added this revolutionary and trendy instrument to our various other CFD instruments. The other types include shares, commodities, indices, currency pairs, and ETFs. Such instruments can be chosen when you want to trade with leverage while reaping the benefits of free resources and updates www.bsinvest.biz hires dedicated and full time employees as well as third party contractors of blockchain. We make sure to have the technical expertise to develop and create plans that promote financial literacy and access to the global financial system. And no matter where you are and what time is it, the services of this website will be accessible to you 24*7. Therefore, if there's any help you require at any certain stage, we will have your back. We offer 3-Level referral program for members - see detailed information on the affiliate pageRead more about affiliate program Phone support: +85289215182Office address: UNIT A-C,25/F.,Seabright Plaza,No.9-23 SHELL STREET ,NORTH POINT, HONGKONG
    + Gogoearn Monitored Since: 2018-11-05 (641 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 22.00% every calendar day for 5 days, principal included
Program Description : Let our investment professionals help you attain financial freedom through online investing with Bitcoin Do you want to earn profit every day? You are looking at the right spot. Earn 15% -- 22% on every calendar day. Investment plans in this section allow you to have higher return on your investment by locking your capital for certain days.
    + Invest20day Monitored Since: 2018-12-07 (609 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 6.00% every calendar day for 20 days, principal included
Program Description :   Info Started         Dec 6, 2018 Running days 1 Total accounts 5 Total deposited $ 190.00 Total withdraw $ 0.00 Visitors online 16 Members online 2 Last update  Dec 7, 2018 Invest20Day is an independent and privately owned financial group. The principal activity is the provision of high quality investment services to members through its user-friendly platform. The founders of the group are independent financial advisers who specialized in offering portfolio management services to private and corporate investors.   Every investment is risky. Though it is possible to minimize the risk but no one can guarantee eliminating it. Invest20Day is proud to provide you with an investment platform which lowers investment risks to an affordable level. Expierenced well co-ordinated team, innovative strategies and time-proved solutions are the key to success, which we are ready to share with you. Invest20Day is a risk that you definetely can afford, likewise more than 10 thousand clients from 43 countries already did. If you have friends or partners interested in investing with us, just give them your referral link and we will credit your account with up to 5% from the spends they make. You can find your referral link within corresponding area of your personal account. Please note that it is not necessary to deposit funds to your account to refer your friends to earn referral commissions. You can advertise our company and provided services, but it is strictly prohibited to use ANY type of spam as a means to advertise Invest20Day.
    + Earnsure.biz Monitored Since: 2018-11-25 (621 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 9% - 12% Hourly For 16 Hours <br /> 175% After 3 Days<br /> 450% After 8 Days<br /&...
Program Description : We are aimed at getting the leading position in cryptocurrency investment market. Our experts monitor online each stock exchange daily and due to favourable exchange rate we maximize our investors’ profit. Join us! We are Earnsure.biz Limited, a UK based company involved with trading in cryptocurrencies. Our company was founded by a group of skilled analysts and experienced traders, to create a secure and highly profitable investment opportunities. Our trading department is primarily focused on the trading of Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum and Litecoin. We help our clients earn money on the volatility of the cryptocurrency market. Due to the use of high frequency, medium-term and long-term trading strategies our company is able to consistently generate a high percentage of profits and thereby pay high interests to their investors. Our success is secured by well-coordinated work of a big team of experts (economists, analysts, traders) whose interaction leads to the efficient operation of the whole company. Cooperation with us means new opportunities in obtaining stable passive income, regardless of external factors. Investment security, predictability of processes and predictability of profits are the three main advantages of our company when it comes to cooperation with potential investors based on our online resource. The computer-based analytical system recognizes every fluctuations in cryptocurrency and makes successful predictions for the nearest future. Our company has legal registration in UK. The Certificate of official registration can be found on our website. Our expertise helps us to develop a number of investment programs that have already been used for several years. We answer to the requests of every client. Our support service works in the 24/7 mode. The FAQ section is constantly updated.
    + CryptoIncome Monitored Since: 2018-12-12 (604 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
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Program Plans : 10% - 12% - 15% Daily For 100 Days
Program Description : Cryptoincome Invest LTD is an investment services company. We offer our investors access to high-growth investment opportunities in Bitcoin markets. Cryptoincome Invest LTD offers an array of investment products. Our primary focus has been on emerging and rapid growth markets with an emphasis on Bitcoin and other top performing crypto currencies. We are proud to work to the highest ethical standards of Bitcoin mining and trading strategies. We are pleased to offer some of the most dynamic and high-performing trading strategies available. We have become well known in our industry and we are well respected by our peers. We are excited to serve our national and international clients. Our network in growing fast and is far reaching. We put our clients first. We know our clients are educated and informed and require a service that can be tailored to their high expectations. We have balanced the risk and reward to put together an easy to understand investment strategy that is in-line with your preferences. We have an in-depth understanding of the Bitcoin markets and have leveraged that knowledge to benefit all of our users. Thanks to our dedicated team of industry-leading experts, we have been able to generate industry-beating returns. We got our start trading and mining Bitcoin. From there we saw a greater vision of what our platform could be for our users. We went to work and built the most state-of-the-art and sophisticated platform that have brought our clients together under a single umbrella as part of a global, P2P Bitcoin community. Our platform provides the most in-depth technical data to inform and execute high-performing Bitcoin trading strategies. If you are already investing in Bitcoin or if you are a novice just getting started, this is the platform for you. Our Comodo EV SSL Certificate guarantees the security of your transactions. Get your payment instantly as soon as you request it! Minimum withdrawal is 0.0003 BTC. The website uses a very powerful dedicated server from ddos-guard.ru with the highest level of protection. Cryptoincome is registered in the UK. Our company number is: #11504670 Check Company Cryptoincome Invest LTD is the best team of professional traderson cryptocurrency market today Our professional Support managersalways ready help you with any issues in our Online Chat or Phone line or Contact form Get even more profit by attracting other participants as your referrals. We propose to take advantage of a convenient three-level referral system.
    + Pay Bitcoin Monitored Since: 2020-07-24 (14 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Paying | Users rating: 0.40 | Minimum spend: 10 | Maximum spend: 10000 | See more details...
Program Plans : 236% After 1 Hour (Instant Payment) / 369% After 2 Hours (Instant Payment)
Program Description : Pay Bitcoin Ltd. offers affordable earnings for anyone. A modern company, whose core business direction is closely related to computer technology and software, has been developing new methods and effective algorithms of crypto mining. For several years, Pay Bitcoin Ltd. not only has managed to build a few large data centers in UK, but also to equip them with powerful bitcoin mining hardware that around the clock provides with stable earnings growth. In 2019, the company made a successful attempt to enter the international technology market with an offer of profitable cooperation. The main goal is to build a branch network of data centers in Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark. Relevant climate, capital investment in construction and process equipment for mining are the main criteria for an interesting startup project with minimum requirements for investors and where anyone can participate or become a co-owner of the company after the share issue. Since the advent of Bitcoin and the first attempts to turn cryptocurrency into payment method our company is closely watching for the slightest changes in the field of digital money. The best technical and computer experts are involved in the solution of many problems, which make closer a new era of financial relationships and blur the physical boundaries between us. Like millions of people around the world, we sincerely believe that in the near future cryptocurrency will become a worthy replacement for not only conventional money, but also the world's electronic payment systems. Pay Bitcoin Ltd. spends a lot of time studying the phenomenon of cryptocurrency and looking for different ways to get Bitcoin and other virtual currencies. In addition, we are ready to share our knowledge and experience, use our skills for earnings and to promote the idea of switching to cryptocurrency in all sectors of the financial life of people. That is why we are launching our investment project and invite everyone who shares our ideas and is ready to grow with Pay Bitcoin Ltd.. Do you want to invest cryptocurrency quickly and comfortably? There is nothing easier than doing this online using debit card. Pay Bitcoin Ltd. provides assistance in obtaining of payment card of international class. Wherever you are, at any point on the globe, you'll be able to invest and withdraw bitcoins at the best current exchange rate. Please contact the company financial department to get detailed instructions on how to issue plastic or virtual debit card at your place of residence. Our experts will be happy to prompt you the most comfortable method that gives you the ability to instantly convert crypto funds into USD, EUR, GBP and other currencies, forward and backward.
    + coinhour.biz Monitored Since: 2019-06-05 (429 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 5% Hourly For 42 Hours,80% Daily For 3 Days ,10% Hourly For 20 Hours,25% Hourly For 8 Hours ,800% Af...
Program Description : COINHOUR LIMITED is generate the maximum possible profit using various trading tools, is tireless analytical work, highly qualified specialists of different profiles: traders, analysts, experts on the global economy, managers, developers, programmers etc. well-coordinated work of the whole team of employees, based on the interaction and responsiveness to the slightest changes in market conditions, is key to the overall success of our company. We provide 24/7 customer support through e-mail. Our support representatives are always available to answer any questions. We use a dedicated server with the highest level of DDOS protection to ensure that your funds are always safe with us. Our website is secured with 256-bit encryption from Comodo with Extended Validation that verifies the authenticity of our company. Our withdrawals are all processed instantly after they are requested . Minimum withdrawal is only $0.05. For participation in our partner program you don't need to have your own deposit. You earn referral commission is paid directly into you e-currency account instantly.
    + kingpayments.net Monitored Since: 2019-12-13 (238 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 2.00% every calendar day for 10 days, principal returned
Program Description : What makes us special is that we have first discovered the challenges and pitfalls that are involved in trading. Our keen interest and highly qualified team have done extensive research and have gained enormous experience. We have been into the market for past many years. We are the market leaders at International Level . We make best efforts to achieve what we have anticipated. We have created a platform where you can invest and earn high returns. Also, you can trade endlessly . A life changing opportunity that you can never afford to miss. We understand that you have earned money by doing hard work therefore we have crafted the best plans that offer high ROI. Isn't it amazing that you will generate passive income throughout the year by just investing once, depending upon the plan. We believe our customers are enthusiastic about investment opportunities and therefore we offer a bonus system and ranking system as well. Find products globally and conduct your transactions on our secured international block chain platform. International trading has been heavily emphasized in several regions across the globe especially in middle east countries, South America, China, and Russia. Every country is working to improve its trading services. We are working in close association with people from across the globe to promote international trading. The company is a renowned service provider, because of the impeccable trustworthiness. We have worked hard to eliminate the hassle to provide the best services. Our technical experts have devised a platform that is highly safe, extremely secure and simple to handle. We promise that once you’ll invest with us you will be our investor forever. The company has set priorities and strategies to develop the best platform for investment that will offer trading opportunities to its investors. We offer following plans for our investors International trade gives rise to a world economy, in which supply and demand, and therefore prices, both affect and are affected by global events. Political change in Asia, for example, could result in an increase in the cost of labor, thereby increasing the manufacturing costs for an American sneaker company based in Malaysia, which would then result in an increase in the price charged at your local mall. A decrease in the cost of labor, on the other hand, would likely result in you having to pay less for your new shoes. A product that is sold to the global market is called an&amp;nbsp;export, and a product that is bought from the global market is an&amp;nbsp;import. Imports and exports are accounted for in a country's&amp;nbsp;current account&amp;nbsp;in the balance of payments. Comparative Advantage: Increased Efficiency of Trading Globally Global trade allows wealthy countries to use their resources—whether labor, technology or&amp;nbsp;capital—more efficiently. Because countries are endowed with different assets and natural resources (land, labor, capital, and technology), some countries may produce the same good more efficiently and therefore sell it more cheaply than other countries. If a country cannot efficiently produce an item, it can obtain the it by trading with another country that can. This is known as&amp;nbsp;specialization&amp;nbsp;in international trade. Let's take a simple example. Country A and Country B both produce cotton sweaters and wine. Country A produces ten sweaters and six bottles of wine a year while Country B produces six sweaters and ten bottles of wine a year. Both can produce a total of 16 units. Country A, however, takes three hours to produce the ten sweaters and two hours to produce the six bottles of wine (total of five hours). Country B, on the other hand, takes one hour to produce ten sweaters and three hours to produce six bottles of wine (a total of four hours). But these two countries realize that they could produce more by focusing on those products with which they have a&amp;nbsp;comparative advantage. Country A then begins to produce only wine, and Country B produces only cotton sweaters. Each country can now create a specialized output of 20 units per year and trade equal proportions of both products. As such, each country now has access to 20 units of both products. We can see then that for both countries, the&amp;nbsp;opportunity cost&amp;nbsp;of producing both products is greater than the cost of specializing. More specifically, for each country, the opportunity cost of producing 16 units of both sweaters and wine is 20 units of both products (after trading). Specialization reduces their opportunity cost and therefore maximizes their efficiency in acquiring the goods they need. With the greater supply, the price of each product would decrease, thus giving an advantage to the end consumer as well. Note that, in the example above, Country B could produce both wine and cotton more efficiently than Country A (less time). This is called an absolute advantage, and Country B may have it because of a higher level of technology. Origins of Comparative Advantage The law of comparative advantage is popularly attributed to English political economist&amp;nbsp;David Ricardo.&amp;nbsp;It's discussed in his book “On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” published in 1817, although it has been suggested that Ricardo's mentor, James Mill, likely originated the analysis. David Ricardo famously showed how England and Portugal both benefit by specializing and trading according to their comparative advantages. In this case, Portugal was able to make wine at a low cost, while England was able to cheaply manufacture cloth. Ricardo predicted that each country would eventually recognize these facts and stop attempting to make the product that was more costly to generate. Indeed, as time went on, England stopped producing wine, and Portugal stopped manufacturing cloth. Both countries saw that it was to their advantage to stop their efforts at producing these items at home and, instead, to trade with each other. A contemporary example is China’s comparative advantage with the United States in the form of cheap labor. Chinese workers produce simple consumer goods at a much lower opportunity cost. The United States’ comparative advantage is in specialized, capital-intensive labor. American workers produce sophisticated goods or investment opportunities at lower opportunity costs. Specializing and trading along these lines benefits each. The theory of comparative advantage helps to explain why&amp;nbsp;protectionism&amp;nbsp;has been traditionally unsuccessful. If a country removes itself from an international trade agreement, or if a government imposes tariffs, it may produce an immediate local benefit in the form of new jobs and industry. However, this is often not a long-term solution to a trade problem. Eventually, that country will grow to be at a disadvantage relative to its neighbors: countries that were already better able to produce these items at a lower opportunity cost. Criticisms of Comparative Advantage Why doesn't the world have open trading between countries? When there is free trade, why do some countries remain poor at the expense of others? There are many reasons, but the most influential is something that economists call&amp;nbsp;rent-seeking. Rent-seeking occurs when one group organizes and&amp;nbsp;lobbies&amp;nbsp;the government to protect its interests. Say, for example, the producers of American shoes understand and agree with the free-trade argument—but they also know that their narrow interests would be negatively impacted by cheaper foreign shoes. Even if laborers would be most productive by switching from making shoes to making computers, nobody in the shoe industry wants to lose his or her job or see&amp;nbsp;profits&amp;nbsp;decrease in the short run. This desire could lead the shoemakers to lobby for special&amp;nbsp;tax breaks&amp;nbsp;for their products and/or extra&amp;nbsp;duties&amp;nbsp;(or even outright bans) on foreign footwear. Appeals to save American jobs and preserve a time-honored American craft abound—even though, in the long run, American laborers would be made relatively less productive and American consumers relatively poorer by such protectionist tactics. Other Possible Benefits of Trading Globally&amp;nbsp; International trade not only results in increased efficiency but also allows countries to participate in a global economy, encouraging the opportunity for&amp;nbsp;foreign direct investment&amp;nbsp;(FDI), which is the amount of money that individuals invest into foreign companies and assets. In theory, economies can therefore grow more efficiently and can more easily become competitive economic participants. For the receiving government, FDI is a means by which&amp;nbsp;foreign currency and expertise can enter the country. It raises employment levels, and theoretically, leads to a growth in gross domestic product. For the investor, FDI offers company expansion and growth, which means higher revenues. Free Trade Vs. Protectionism As with all theories, there are opposing views. International trade has two contrasting views regarding the level of control placed on trade: free trade and protectionism. Free trade is the simpler of the two theories: a laissez-faire approach, with no restrictions on trade. The main idea is that&amp;nbsp;supply and demand&amp;nbsp;factors, operating on a global scale, will ensure that production happens efficiently. Therefore, nothing needs to be done to protect or promote trade and growth, because market forces will do so automatically. In contrast, protectionism holds that regulation of international trade is important to ensure that markets function properly.&amp;nbsp;Advocates of this theory believe that market inefficiencies may hamper the benefits of international trade, and they aim to guide the market accordingly. Protectionism exists in many different forms, but the most common are&amp;nbsp;tariffs,&amp;nbsp;subsidies, and&amp;nbsp;quotas. These strategies attempt to correct any inefficiency in the international market. As it opens up the opportunity for specialization, and therefore more efficient use of resources, international trade has the potential to maximize a country's capacity to produce and acquire goods. Opponents of global free trade have argued, however, that international trade still allows for inefficiencies that leave developing nations compromised. What is certain is that the global economy is in a state of continual change, and, as it develops, so too must its participants. International trade gives rise to a world economy, in which supply and demand, and therefore prices, both affect and are affected by global events. Political change in Asia, for example, could result in an increase in the cost of labor, thereby increasing the manufacturing costs for an American sneaker company based in Malaysia, which would then result in an increase in the price charged at your local mall. A decrease in the cost of labor, on the other hand, would likely result in you having to pay less for your new shoes. A product that is sold to the global market is called an&amp;nbsp;export, and a product that is bought from the global market is an&amp;nbsp;import. Imports and exports are accounted for in a country's&amp;nbsp;current account&amp;nbsp;in the balance of payments. Global trade allows wealthy countries to use their resources—whether labor, technology or&amp;nbsp;capital—more efficiently. Because countries are endowed with different assets and natural resources (land, labor, capital, and technology), some countries may produce the same good more efficiently and therefore sell it more cheaply than other countries. If a country cannot efficiently produce an item, it can obtain the it by trading with another country that can. This is known as&amp;nbsp;specialization&amp;nbsp;in international trade. Let's take a simple example. Country A and Country B both produce cotton sweaters and wine. Country A produces ten sweaters and six bottles of wine a year while Country B produces six sweaters and ten bottles of wine a year. Both can produce a total of 16 units. Country A, however, takes three hours to produce the ten sweaters and two hours to produce the six bottles of wine (total of five hours). Country B, on the other hand, takes one hour to produce ten sweaters and three hours to produce six bottles of wine (a total of four hours). But these two countries realize that they could produce more by focusing on those products with which they have a&amp;nbsp;comparative advantage. Country A then begins to produce only wine, and Country B produces only cotton sweaters. Each country can now create a specialized output of 20 units per year and trade equal proportions of both products. As such, each country now has access to 20 units of both products. We can see then that for both countries, the&amp;nbsp;opportunity cost&amp;nbsp;of producing both products is greater than the cost of specializing. More specifically, for each country, the opportunity cost of producing 16 units of both sweaters and wine is 20 units of both products (after trading). Specialization reduces their opportunity cost and therefore maximizes their efficiency in acquiring the goods they need. With the greater supply, the price of each product would decrease, thus giving an advantage to the end consumer as well. Note that, in the example above, Country B could produce both wine and cotton more efficiently than Country A (less time). This is called an absolute advantage, and Country B may have it because of a higher level of technology. The law of comparative advantage is popularly attributed to English political economist&amp;nbsp;David Ricardo.&amp;nbsp;It's discussed in his book “On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” published in 1817, although it has been suggested that Ricardo's mentor, James Mill, likely originated the analysis. David Ricardo famously showed how England and Portugal both benefit by specializing and trading according to their comparative advantages. In this case, Portugal was able to make wine at a low cost, while England was able to cheaply manufacture cloth. Ricardo predicted that each country would eventually recognize these facts and stop attempting to make the product that was more costly to generate. Indeed, as time went on, England stopped producing wine, and Portugal stopped manufacturing cloth. Both countries saw that it was to their advantage to stop their efforts at producing these items at home and, instead, to trade with each other. A contemporary example is China’s comparative advantage with the United States in the form of cheap labor. Chinese workers produce simple consumer goods at a much lower opportunity cost. The United States’ comparative advantage is in specialized, capital-intensive labor. American workers produce sophisticated goods or investment opportunities at lower opportunity costs. Specializing and trading along these lines benefits each. The theory of comparative advantage helps to explain why&amp;nbsp;protectionism&amp;nbsp;has been traditionally unsuccessful. If a country removes itself from an international trade agreement, or if a government imposes tariffs, it may produce an immediate local benefit in the form of new jobs and industry. However, this is often not a long-term solution to a trade problem. Eventually, that country will grow to be at a disadvantage relative to its neighbors: countries that were already better able to produce these items at a lower opportunity cost. Why doesn't the world have open trading between countries? When there is free trade, why do some countries remain poor at the expense of others? There are many reasons, but the most influential is something that economists call&amp;nbsp;rent-seeking. Rent-seeking occurs when one group organizes and&amp;nbsp;lobbies&amp;nbsp;the government to protect its interests. Say, for example, the producers of American shoes understand and agree with the free-trade argument—but they also know that their narrow interests would be negatively impacted by cheaper foreign shoes. Even if laborers would be most productive by switching from making shoes to making computers, nobody in the shoe industry wants to lose his or her job or see&amp;nbsp;profits&amp;nbsp;decrease in the short run. This desire could lead the shoemakers to lobby for special&amp;nbsp;tax breaks&amp;nbsp;for their products and/or extra&amp;nbsp;duties&amp;nbsp;(or even outright bans) on foreign footwear. Appeals to save American jobs and preserve a time-honored American craft abound—even though, in the long run, American laborers would be made relatively less productive and American consumers relatively poorer by such protectionist tactics. International trade not only results in increased efficiency but also allows countries to participate in a global economy, encouraging the opportunity for&amp;nbsp;foreign direct investment&amp;nbsp;(FDI), which is the amount of money that individuals invest into foreign companies and assets. In theory, economies can therefore grow more efficiently and can more easily become competitive economic participants. For the receiving government, FDI is a means by which&amp;nbsp;foreign currency and expertise can enter the country. It raises employment levels, and theoretically, leads to a growth in gross domestic product. For the investor, FDI offers company expansion and growth, which means higher revenues. As with all theories, there are opposing views. International trade has two contrasting views regarding the level of control placed on trade: free trade and protectionism. Free trade is the simpler of the two theories: a laissez-faire approach, with no restrictions on trade. The main idea is that&amp;nbsp;supply and demand&amp;nbsp;factors, operating on a global scale, will ensure that production happens efficiently. Therefore, nothing needs to be done to protect or promote trade and growth, because market forces will do so automatically. In contrast, protectionism holds that regulation of international trade is important to ensure that markets function properly.&amp;nbsp;Advocates of this theory believe that market inefficiencies may hamper the benefits of international trade, and they aim to guide the market accordingly. Protectionism exists in many different forms, but the most common are&amp;nbsp;tariffs,&amp;nbsp;subsidies, and&amp;nbsp;quotas. These strategies attempt to correct any inefficiency in the international market. As it opens up the opportunity for specialization, and therefore more efficient use of resources, international trade has the potential to maximize a country's capacity to produce and acquire goods. Opponents of global free trade have argued, however, that international trade still allows for inefficiencies that leave developing nations compromised. What is certain is that the global economy is in a state of continual change, and, as it develops, so too must its participants. If this technology is so complex, why call it “blockchain?” At its most basic level, blockchain is literally just a chain of blocks, but not in the traditional sense of those words. When we say the words “block” and “chain” in this context, we are actually talking about digital information (the “block”) stored in a public database (the “chain”). “Blocks” on the blockchain are made up of digital pieces of information. Specifically, they have three parts: Blocks store information about transactions like the date, time, and dollar amount of your most recent purchase from Amazon. (NOTE: This Amazon example is for illustrative purchases; Amazon retail does not work on a blockchain principle) Blocks store information about who is participating in transactions. A block for your splurge purchase from Amazon would record your name along with Amazon.com, Inc. Instead of using your actual name, your purchase is recorded without any identifying information using a unique “digital signature,” sort of like a username. Blocks store information that distinguishes them from other blocks. Much like you and I have names to distinguish us from one another, each block stores a unique code called a “hash” that allows us to tell it apart from every other block. Let’s say you made your splurge purchase on Amazon, but while it’s in transit, you decide you just can’t resist and need a second one. Even though the details of your new transaction would look nearly identical to your earlier purchase, we can still tell the blocks apart because of their unique codes. While the block in the example above is being used to store a single purchase from Amazon, the reality is a little different. A single block on the blockchain can actually store up to 1 MB of data. Depending on the size of the transactions, that means a single block can house a few thousand transactions under one roof. How Blockchain Works When a block stores new data it is added to the blockchain. Blockchain, as its name suggests, consists of multiple blocks strung together. In order for a block to be added to the blockchain, however, four things must happen: A transaction must occur. Let’s continue with the example of your impulsive Amazon purchase. After hastily clicking through multiple checkout prompt, you go against your better judgment and make a purchase. That transaction must be verified. After making that purchase, your transaction must be verified. With other public records of information, like the Securities Exchange Commission, Wikipedia, or your local library, there’s someone in charge of vetting new data entries. With blockchain, however, that job is left up to a network of computers. When you make your purchase from Amazon, that network of computers rushes to check that your transaction happened in the way you said it did. That is, they confirm the details of the purchase, including the transaction’s time, dollar amount, and participants. (More on how this happens in a second.) That transaction must be stored in a block. After your transaction has been verified as accurate, it gets the green light. The transaction’s dollar amount, your digital signature, and Amazon’s digital signature are all stored in a block. There, the transaction will likely join hundreds, or thousands, of others like it. That block must be given a hash. Not unlike an angel earning its wings, once all of a block’s transactions have been verified, it must be given a unique, identifying code called a hash. The block is also given the hash of the most recent block added to the blockchain. Once hashed, the block can be added to the blockchain. When that new block is added to the blockchain, it becomes publicly available for anyone to view—even you. If you take a look at Bitcoin’s&amp;nbsp;blockchain, you will see that you have access to transaction data, along with information about when (“Time”), where (“Height”), and by who (“Relayed By”) the block was added to the blockchain. Is Blockchain Private? Anyone can view the contents of the blockchain, but users can also opt to connect their computers to the blockchain network. In doing so, their computer receives a copy of the blockchain that is updated automatically whenever a new block is added, sort of like a Facebook News Feed that gives a live update whenever a new status is posted. Each computer in the blockchain network has its own copy of the blockchain, which means that there are thousands, or in the case of Bitcoin, millions of copies of the same blockchain. Although each copy of the blockchain is identical, spreading that information across a network of computers makes the information more difficult to manipulate. With blockchain, there isn’t a single, definitive account of events that can be manipulated. Instead, a hacker would need to manipulate every copy of the blockchain on the network. Looking over the Bitcoin blockchain, however, you will notice that you do not have access to identifying information about the users making transactions. Although transactions on the blockchain are not completely anonymous, personal information about users is limited to their digital signature or username. This raises an important question: if you cannot know who is adding blocks to the blockchain, how can you trust blockchain or the network of computers upholding it? Is Blockchain Secure? Blockchain technology accounts for the issues of security and trust in several ways. First, new blocks are always stored linearly and chronologically. That is, they are always added to the “end” of the blockchain. If you take a look at Bitcoin’s blockchain, you’ll see that each block has a position on the chain, called a “height.” As of Feb. 2019, the block’s height had topped 562,000. After a block has been added to the end of the blockchain, it is very difficult to go back and alter the contents of the block. That’s because each block contains its own hash, along with the hash of the block before it. Hash codes are created by a math function that turns digital information into a string of numbers and letters. If that information is edited in any way, the hash code changes as well. Here’s why that’s important to security. Let’s say a hacker attempts to edit your transaction from Amazon so that you actually have to pay for your purchase twice. As soon as they edit the dollar amount of your transaction, the block’s hash will change. The next block in the chain will still contain the old hash, and the hacker would need to update that block in order to cover their tracks. However, doing so would change that block’s hash. And the next, and so on. In order to change a single block, then, a hacker would need to change every single block after it on the blockchain. Recalculating all those hashes would take an enormous and improbable amount of computing power. In other words, once a block is added to the blockchain it becomes very difficult to edit and impossible to delete. To address the issue of trust, blockchain networks have implemented tests for computers that want to join and add blocks to the chain. The tests, called “consensus models,” require users to “prove” themselves before they can participate in a blockchain network. One of the most common examples employed by Bitcoin is called “proof of work.” In the&amp;nbsp;proof of work&amp;nbsp;system, computers must “prove” that they have done “work” by solving a complex computational math problem. If a computer solves one of these problems, they become eligible to add a block to the blockchain. But the process of adding blocks to the blockchain, what the cryptocurrency world calls “mining,” is not easy. In fact, according to the blockchain news site BlockExplorer, the&amp;nbsp;odds&amp;nbsp;of solving one of these problems on the Bitcoin network were about one in 5.8 trillion in Feb. 2019. To solve complex math problems at those odds, computers must run programs that cost them significant amounts of power and energy (read: money). Proof of work does not make attacks by hackers impossible, but it does make them somewhat useless. If a hacker wanted to coordinate an attack on the blockchain, they would need to solve complex computational math problems at 1 in 5.8 trillion odds just like everyone else. The cost of organizing such an attack would almost certainly outweigh the benefits. Blockchain vs. Bitcoin The goal of blockchain is to allow digital information to be recorded and distributed, but not edited. That concept can be difficult to wrap our heads around without seeing the technology in action, so let’s take a look at how the earliest application of blockchain technology actually works. Blockchain technology was first outlined in 1991 by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta, two researchers who wanted to implement a system where document timestamps could not be tampered with. But it wasn’t until almost two decades later, with the launch of Bitcoin in January 2009, that blockchain had its first real-world application. The Bitcoin protocol is built on the blockchain. In a research paper introducing the digital currency, Bitcoin’s pseudonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto referred to it as “a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.” Here’s how it works. You have all these people, all over the world, who have Bitcoin. According to a 2017&amp;nbsp;study&amp;nbsp;by the Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance, the number may be as many as 5.9 million. Let’s say one of those 5.9 million people wants to spend their Bitcoin on groceries. This is where the blockchain comes in. When it comes to printed money, the use of printed currency is regulated and verified by a central authority, usually a bank or government—but&amp;nbsp;Bitcoin is not controlled by anyone. Instead, transactions made in Bitcoin are verified by a network of computers. When one person pays another for goods using Bitcoin, computers on the Bitcoin network race to verify the transaction. In order to do so, users run a program on their computers and try to solve a complex mathematical problem, called a “hash.” When a computer solves the problem by “hashing” a block, its algorithmic work will have also verified the block’s transactions. The completed transaction is publicly recorded and stored as a block on the blockchain, at which point it becomes unalterable. In the case of Bitcoin, and most other blockchains, computers that successfully verify blocks are rewarded for their labor with cryptocurrency. Although transactions are&amp;nbsp;publicly recorded&amp;nbsp;on the blockchain, user data is not—or, at least not in full. In order to conduct transactions on the Bitcoin network, participants must run a program called a “wallet.” Each wallet consists of two unique and distinct cryptographic keys: a public key and a private key. The public key is the location where transactions are deposited to and withdrawn from. This is also the key that appears on the blockchain ledger as the user’s digital signature. Even if a user receives a payment in Bitcoins to their public key, they will not be able to withdraw them with the private counterpart. A user’s&amp;nbsp;public key&amp;nbsp;is a shortened version of their private key, created through a complicated mathematical algorithm. However, due to the complexity of this equation, it is almost impossible to reverse the process and generate a private key from a public key. For this reason, blockchain technology is considered confidential. Public and Private Key Basics Here’s the ELI5—“Explain it Like I’m 5”—version. You can think of a public key as a school locker and the private key as the locker combination. Teachers, students, and even your crush can insert letters and notes through the opening in your locker. However, the only person that can retrieve the contents of the mailbox is the one that has the unique key. It should be noted, however, that while school locker combinations are kept in the principal’s office, there is no central database that keeps track of a blockchain network’s private keys. If a user misplaces their private key, they will lose access to their Bitcoin wallet, as was the case with&amp;nbsp;this man&amp;nbsp;who made national headlines in December of 2017. A Single Public Chain In the Bitcoin network, the blockchain is not only shared and maintained by a public network of users—but it is also agreed upon. When users join the network, their connected computer receives a&amp;nbsp;copy of the blockchain&amp;nbsp;that is updated whenever a new block of transactions is added. But what if, through human error or the efforts of a hacker, one user’s copy of the blockchain manipulated to be different from every other copy of the blockchain? The blockchain protocol discourages the existence of multiple blockchains through a process called “consensus.” In the presence of multiple, differing copies of the blockchain, the consensus protocol will adopt the longest chain available. More users on a blockchain mean that blocks can be added to the end of the chain quicker. By that logic, the blockchain of record will always be the one that most users trust. The consensus protocol is one of blockchain technology’s greatest strengths but also allows for one of its greatest weaknesses. Theoretically, Hacker-Proof Theoretically, it is possible for a hacker to take advantage of the majority rule in what is referred to as a&amp;nbsp;51% attack. Here’s how it would happen. Let’s say that there are five million computers on the Bitcoin network, a gross understatement for sure but an easy enough number to divide. In order to achieve a majority on the network, a hacker would need to control at least 2.5 million and one of those computers. In doing so, an attacker or group of attackers could interfere with the process of recording new transactions. They could send a transaction—and then reverse it, making it appear as though they still had the coin they just spent. This vulnerability, known as&amp;nbsp;double-spending, is the digital equivalent of a perfect counterfeit and would enable users to spend their Bitcoins twice. Such an attack is extremely difficult to execute for a blockchain of Bitcoin’s scale, as it would require an attacker to gain control of millions of computers. When Bitcoin was first founded in 2009 and its users numbered in the dozens, it would have been easier for an attacker to control a majority of computational power in the network. This defining characteristic of blockchain has been flagged as one weakness for fledgling cryptocurrencies. User fear of 51% attacks can actually limit monopolies from forming on the blockchain. In “Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money,” New York Times journalist Nathaniel Popper writes of how a group of users, called “Bitfury,” pooled thousands of high-powered computers together to gain a competitive edge on the blockchain. Their goal was to mine as many blocks as possible and earn bitcoin, which at the time were valued at approximately $700 each. Harnessing Bitfury By March 2014, however, Bitfury was positioned to exceed 50% of the blockchain network’s total computational power. Instead of continuing to increase its hold over the network, the group elected to self-regulate itself and vowed never to go above 40%. Bitfury knew that if they chose to continue increasing their control over the network, bitcoin’s value would fall as users sold off their coins in preparation for the possibility of a 51% attack. In other words, if users lose their faith in the blockchain network, the information on that network risks becoming completely worthless. Blockchain users, then, can only increase their computational power to a point before they begin to lose money. Blockchain's Practical Application Blocks on the blockchain store data about monetary transactions—we’ve got that out of the way. But it turns out that blockchain is actually a pretty reliable way of storing data about other types of transactions, as well. In fact, blockchain technology can be used to store data about property exchanges, stops in a supply chain, and even votes for a candidate. Professional services network Deloitte recently surveyed 1,000 companies across seven countries about integrating blockchain into their business operations. Their&amp;nbsp;survey&amp;nbsp;found that 34% already had a blockchain system in production today, while another 41% expected to deploy a blockchain application within the next 12 months. In addition, nearly 40% of the surveyed companies reported they would invest $5 million or more in blockchain in the coming year. Here are some of the most popular applications of blockchain being explored today. Bank Use Perhaps no industry stands to benefit from integrating blockchain into its business operations more than banking. Financial institutions only operate during business hours, five days a week. That means if you try to deposit a check on Friday at 6 p.m., you likely will have to wait until Monday morning to see that money hit your account. Even if you do make your deposit during business hours, the transaction can still take one to three days to verify due to the sheer volume of transactions that banks need to settle. Blockchain, on the other hand, never sleeps. By integrating blockchain into banks, consumers can see their transactions processed in as little as 10 minutes, basically the time it takes to add a block to the blockchain, regardless of the time or day of the week. With blockchain, banks also have the opportunity to exchange funds between institutions more quickly and securely. In the stock trading business, for example, the settlement and clearing process can take up to three days (or longer, if banks are trading internationally), meaning that the money and shares are frozen for that time. Given the size of the sums involved, even the few days that the money is in transit can carry significant costs and risks for banks. Santander, a European bank, put the potential savings at&amp;nbsp;$20 billion a year. Capgemini, a French consultancy, estimates that consumers could save up to&amp;nbsp;$16 billion&amp;nbsp;in banking and insurance fees each year through blockchain-based applications. Use in Cryptocurrency Blockchain forms the bedrock for cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. As we explored earlier, currencies like the U.S. dollar are regulated and verified by a central authority, usually a bank or government. Under the central authority system, a user’s data and currency are technically at the whim of their bank or government. If a user’s bank collapses or they live in a country with an unstable government, the value of their currency may be at risk. These are the worries out of which Bitcoin was borne. By spreading its operations across a network of computers, blockchain allows Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to operate without the need for a central authority. This not only reduces risk but also eliminates many of the processing and transaction fees. It also gives those in countries with unstable currencies a more stable currency with more applications and a wider network of individuals and institutions they can do business with, both domestically and internationally (at least, this is the goal.) Healthcare Uses Health care providers can leverage blockchain to securely store their patients’ medical records. When a medical record is generated and signed, it can be written into the blockchain, which provides patients with the proof and confidence that the record cannot be changed. These personal health records could be encoded and stored on the blockchain with a private key, so that they are only accessible by certain individuals, thereby ensuring privacy Property Records Use If you have ever spent time in your local Recorder’s Office, you will know that the process of recording property rights is both burdensome and inefficient. Today, a physical deed must be delivered to a government employee at the local recording office, where is it manually entered into the county’s central database and public index. In the case of a property dispute, claims to the property must be reconciled with the public index. This process is not just costly and time-consuming—it is also riddled with human error, where each inaccuracy makes tracking property ownership less efficient. Blockchain has the potential to eliminate the need for scanning documents and tracking down physical files in a local recording office. If property ownership is stored and verified on the blockchain, owners can trust that their deed is accurate and permanent. Use in Smart Contracts A&amp;nbsp;smart contract&amp;nbsp;is a computer code that can be built into the blockchain to facilitate, verify, or negotiate a contract agreement. Smart contracts operate under a set of conditions that users agree to. When those conditions are met, the terms of the agreement are automatically carried out. Say, for example, I’m renting you my apartment using a smart contract. I agree to give you the door code to the apartment as soon as you pay me your security deposit. Both of us would send our portion of the deal to the smart contract, which would hold onto and automatically exchange my door code for your security deposit on the date of the rental. If I don’t supply the door code by the rental date, the smart contract refunds your security deposit. This eliminates the fees that typically accompany using a notary or third-party mediator. Supply Chain Use&amp;nbsp; Suppliers can use blockchain to record the origins of materials that they have purchased. This would allow companies to verify the authenticity of their products, along with health and ethics labels like “Organic,” “Local,” and “Fair Trade.” As reported by Forbes the&amp;nbsp;food industry is moving into the use&amp;nbsp;of blockchain to increasingly track the path and safety of food throughout the farm-to-user journey. Uses in Voting&amp;nbsp; Voting with blockchain carries the potential to eliminate election fraud and boost voter turnout, as was&amp;nbsp;tested&amp;nbsp;in the Nov. 2018 midterm elections in West Virginia. Each vote would be stored as a block on the blockchain, making them nearly impossible to tamper with. The blockchain protocol would also maintain transparency in the electoral process, reducing the personnel needed to conduct an election and provide officials with instant results. Advantages and Disadvantages of Blockchain For all its complexity, blockchain’s potential as a decentralized form of record-keeping is almost without limit. From greater user privacy and heightened security to lower processing fees and fewer errors, blockchain technology may very well see applications beyond those outlined above. If this technology is so complex, why call it “blockchain?” At its most basic level, blockchain is literally just a chain of blocks, but not in the traditional sense of those words. When we say the words “block” and “chain” in this context, we are actually talking about digital information (the “block”) stored in a public database (the “chain”). “Blocks” on the blockchain are made up of digital pieces of information. Specifically, they have three parts: While the block in the example above is being used to store a single purchase from Amazon, the reality is a little different. A single block on the blockchain can actually store up to 1 MB of data. Depending on the size of the transactions, that means a single block can house a few thousand transactions under one roof. When a block stores new data it is added to the blockchain. Blockchain, as its name suggests, consists of multiple blocks strung together. In order for a block to be added to the blockchain, however, four things must happen: When that new block is added to the blockchain, it becomes publicly available for anyone to view—even you. If you take a look at Bitcoin’s&amp;nbsp;blockchain, you will see that you have access to transaction data, along with information about when (“Time”), where (“Height”), and by who (“Relayed By”) the block was added to the blockchain. Anyone can view the contents of the blockchain, but users can also opt to connect their computers to the blockchain network. In doing so, their computer receives a copy of the blockchain that is updated automatically whenever a new block is added, sort of like a Facebook News Feed that gives a live update whenever a new status is posted. Each computer in the blockchain network has its own copy of the blockchain, which means that there are thousands, or in the case of Bitcoin, millions of copies of the same blockchain. Although each copy of the blockchain is identical, spreading that information across a network of computers makes the information more difficult to manipulate. With blockchain, there isn’t a single, definitive account of events that can be manipulated. Instead, a hacker would need to manipulate every copy of the blockchain on the network. Looking over the Bitcoin blockchain, however, you will notice that you do not have access to identifying information about the users making transactions. Although transactions on the blockchain are not completely anonymous, personal information about users is limited to their digital signature or username. This raises an important question: if you cannot know who is adding blocks to the blockchain, how can you trust blockchain or the network of computers upholding it? Blockchain technology accounts for the issues of security and trust in several ways. First, new blocks are always stored linearly and chronologically. That is, they are always added to the “end” of the blockchain. If you take a look at Bitcoin’s blockchain, you’ll see that each block has a position on the chain, called a “height.” As of Feb. 2019, the block’s height had topped 562,000. After a block has been added to the end of the blockchain, it is very difficult to go back and alter the contents of the block. That’s because each block contains its own hash, along with the hash of the block before it. Hash codes are created by a math function that turns digital information into a string of numbers and letters. If that information is edited in any way, the hash code changes as well. Here’s why that’s important to security. Let’s say a hacker attempts to edit your transaction from Amazon so that you actually have to pay for your purchase twice. As soon as they edit the dollar amount of your transaction, the block’s hash will change. The next block in the chain will still contain the old hash, and the hacker would need to update that block in order to cover their tracks. However, doing so would change that block’s hash. And the next, and so on. In order to change a single block, then, a hacker would need to change every single block after it on the blockchain. Recalculating all those hashes would take an enormous and improbable amount of computing power. In other words, once a block is added to the blockchain it becomes very difficult to edit and impossible to delete. To address the issue of trust, blockchain networks have implemented tests for computers that want to join and add blocks to the chain. The tests, called “consensus models,” require users to “prove” themselves before they can participate in a blockchain network. One of the most common examples employed by Bitcoin is called “proof of work.” In the&amp;nbsp;proof of work&amp;nbsp;system, computers must “prove” that they have done “work” by solving a complex computational math problem. If a computer solves one of these problems, they become eligible to add a block to the blockchain. But the process of adding blocks to the blockchain, what the cryptocurrency world calls “mining,” is not easy. In fact, according to the blockchain news site BlockExplorer, the&amp;nbsp;odds&amp;nbsp;of solving one of these problems on the Bitcoin network were about one in 5.8 trillion in Feb. 2019. To solve complex math problems at those odds, computers must run programs that cost them significant amounts of power and energy (read: money). Proof of work does not make attacks by hackers impossible, but it does make them somewhat useless. If a hacker wanted to coordinate an attack on the blockchain, they would need to solve complex computational math problems at 1 in 5.8 trillion odds just like everyone else. The cost of organizing such an attack would almost certainly outweigh the benefits. The goal of blockchain is to allow digital information to be recorded and distributed, but not edited. That concept can be difficult to wrap our heads around without seeing the technology in action, so let’s take a look at how the earliest application of blockchain technology actually works. Blockchain technology was first outlined in 1991 by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta, two researchers who wanted to implement a system where document timestamps could not be tampered with. But it wasn’t until almost two decades later, with the launch of Bitcoin in January 2009, that blockchain had its first real-world application. The Bitcoin protocol is built on the blockchain. In a research paper introducing the digital currency, Bitcoin’s pseudonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto referred to it as “a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.” You have all these people, all over the world, who have Bitcoin. According to a 2017&amp;nbsp;study&amp;nbsp;by the Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance, the number may be as many as 5.9 million. Let’s say one of those 5.9 million people wants to spend their Bitcoin on groceries. This is where the blockchain comes in. When it comes to printed money, the use of printed currency is regulated and verified by a central authority, usually a bank or government—but&amp;nbsp;Bitcoin is not controlled by anyone. Instead, transactions made in Bitcoin are verified by a network of computers. When one person pays another for goods using Bitcoin, computers on the Bitcoin network race to verify the transaction. In order to do so, users run a program on their computers and try to solve a complex mathematical problem, called a “hash.” When a computer solves the problem by “hashing” a block, its algorithmic work will have also verified the block’s transactions. The completed transaction is publicly recorded and stored as a block on the blockchain, at which point it becomes unalterable. In the case of Bitcoin, and most other blockchains, computers that successfully verify blocks are rewarded for their labor with cryptocurrency. Although transactions are&amp;nbsp;publicly recorded&amp;nbsp;on the blockchain, user data is not—or, at least not in full. In order to conduct transactions on the Bitcoin network, participants must run a program called a “wallet.” Each wallet consists of two unique and distinct cryptographic keys: a public key and a private key. The public key is the location where transactions are deposited to and withdrawn from. This is also the key that appears on the blockchain ledger as the user’s digital signature. Even if a user receives a payment in Bitcoins to their public key, they will not be able to withdraw them with the private counterpart. A user’s&amp;nbsp;public key&amp;nbsp;is a shortened version of their private key, created through a complicated mathematical algorithm. However, due to the complexity of this equation, it is almost impossible to reverse the process and generate a private key from a public key. For this reason, blockchain technology is considered confidential. Here’s the ELI5—“Explain it Like I’m 5”—version. You can think of a public key as a school locker and the private key as the locker combination. Teachers, students, and even your crush can insert letters and notes through the opening in your locker. However, the only person that can retrieve the contents of the mailbox is the one that has the unique key. It should be noted, however, that while school locker combinations are kept in the principal’s office, there is no central database that keeps track of a blockchain network’s private keys. If a user misplaces their private key, they will lose access to their Bitcoin wallet, as was the case with&amp;nbsp;this man&amp;nbsp;who made national headlines in December of 2017. In the Bitcoin network, the blockchain is not only shared and maintained by a public network of users—but it is also agreed upon. When users join the network, their connected computer receives a&amp;nbsp;copy of the blockchain&amp;nbsp;that is updated whenever a new block of transactions is added. But what if, through human error or the efforts of a hacker, one user’s copy of the blockchain manipulated to be different from every other copy of the blockchain? The blockchain protocol discourages the existence of multiple blockchains through a process called “consensus.” In the presence of multiple, differing copies of the blockchain, the consensus protocol will adopt the longest chain available. More users on a blockchain mean that blocks can be added to the end of the chain quicker. By that logic, the blockchain of record will always be the one that most users trust. The consensus protocol is one of blockchain technology’s greatest strengths but also allows for one of its greatest weaknesses. Theoretically, it is possible for a hacker to take advantage of the majority rule in what is referred to as a&amp;nbsp;51% attack. Here’s how it would happen. Let’s say that there are five million computers on the Bitcoin network, a gross understatement for sure but an easy enough number to divide. In order to achieve a majority on the network, a hacker would need to control at least 2.5 million and one of those computers. In doing so, an attacker or group of attackers could interfere with the process of recording new transactions. They could send a transaction—and then reverse it, making it appear as though they still had the coin they just spent. This vulnerability, known as&amp;nbsp;double-spending, is the digital equivalent of a perfect counterfeit and would enable users to spend their Bitcoins twice. Such an attack is extremely difficult to execute for a blockchain of Bitcoin’s scale, as it would require an attacker to gain control of millions of computers. When Bitcoin was first founded in 2009 and its users numbered in the dozens, it would have been easier for an attacker to control a majority of computational power in the network. This defining characteristic of blockchain has been flagged as one weakness for fledgling cryptocurrencies. User fear of 51% attacks can actually limit monopolies from forming on the blockchain. In “Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money,” New York Times journalist Nathaniel Popper writes of how a group of users, called “Bitfury,” pooled thousands of high-powered computers together to gain a competitive edge on the blockchain. Their goal was to mine as many blocks as possible and earn bitcoin, which at the time were valued at approximately $700 each. By March 2014, however, Bitfury was positioned to exceed 50% of the blockchain network’s total computational power. Instead of continuing to increase its hold over the network, the group elected to self-regulate itself and vowed never to go above 40%. Bitfury knew that if they chose to continue increasing their control over the network, bitcoin’s value would fall as users sold off their coins in preparation for the possibility of a 51% attack. In other words, if users lose their faith in the blockchain network, the information on that network risks becoming completely worthless. Blockchain users, then, can only increase their computational power to a point before they begin to lose money. Blocks on the blockchain store data about monetary transactions—we’ve got that out of the way. But it turns out that blockchain is actually a pretty reliable way of storing data about other types of transactions, as well. In fact, blockchain technology can be used to store data about property exchanges, stops in a supply chain, and even votes for a candidate. Professional services network Deloitte recently surveyed 1,000 companies across seven countries about integrating blockchain into their business operations. Their&amp;nbsp;survey&amp;nbsp;found that 34% already had a blockchain system in production today, while another 41% expected to deploy a blockchain application within the next 12 months. In addition, nearly 40% of the surveyed companies reported they would invest $5 million or more in blockchain in the coming year. Here are some of the most popular applications of blockchain being explored today. Perhaps no industry stands to benefit from integrating blockchain into its business operations more than banking. Financial institutions only operate during business hours, five days a week. That means if you try to deposit a check on Friday at 6 p.m., you likely will have to wait until Monday morning to see that money hit your account. Even if you do make your deposit during business hours, the transaction can still take one to three days to verify due to the sheer volume of transactions that banks need to settle. Blockchain, on the other hand, never sleeps. By integrating blockchain into banks, consumers can see their transactions processed in as little as 10 minutes, basically the time it takes to add a block to the blockchain, regardless of the time or day of the week. With blockchain, banks also have the opportunity to exchange funds between institutions more quickly and securely. In the stock trading business, for example, the settlement and clearing process can take up to three days (or longer, if banks are trading internationally), meaning that the money and shares are frozen for that time. Given the size of the sums involved, even the few days that the money is in transit can carry significant costs and risks for banks. Santander, a European bank, put the potential savings at&amp;nbsp;$20 billion a year. Capgemini, a French consultancy, estimates that consumers could save up to&amp;nbsp;$16 billion&amp;nbsp;in banking and insurance fees each year through blockchain-based applications. Blockchain forms the bedrock for cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. As we explored earlier, currencies like the U.S. dollar are regulated and verified by a central authority, usually a bank or government. Under the central authority system, a user’s data and currency are technically at the whim of their bank or government. If a user’s bank collapses or they live in a country with an unstable government, the value of their currency may be at risk. These are the worries out of which Bitcoin was borne. By spreading its operations across a network of computers, blockchain allows Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to operate without the need for a central authority. This not only reduces risk but also eliminates many of the processing and transaction fees. It also gives those in countries with unstable currencies a more stable currency with more applications and a wider network of individuals and institutions they can do business with, both domestically and internationally (at least, this is the goal.) Health care providers can leverage blockchain to securely store their patients’ medical records. When a medical record is generated and signed, it can be written into the blockchain, which provides patients with the proof and confidence that the record cannot be changed. These personal health records could be encoded and stored on the blockchain with a private key, so that they are only accessible by certain individuals, thereby ensuring privacy If you have ever spent time in your local Recorder’s Office, you will know that the process of recording property rights is both burdensome and inefficient. Today, a physical deed must be delivered to a government employee at the local recording office, where is it manually entered into the county’s central database and public index. In the case of a property dispute, claims to the property must be reconciled with the public index. This process is not just costly and time-consuming—it is also riddled with human error, where each inaccuracy makes tracking property ownership less efficient. Blockchain has the potential to eliminate the need for scanning documents and tracking down physical files in a local recording office. If property ownership is stored and verified on the blockchain, owners can trust that their deed is accurate and permanent. A&amp;nbsp;smart contract&amp;nbsp;is a computer code that can be built into the blockchain to facilitate, verify, or negotiate a contract agreement. Smart contracts operate under a set of conditions that users agree to. When those conditions are met, the terms of the agreement are automatically carried out. Say, for example, I’m renting you my apartment using a smart contract. I agree to give you the door code to the apartment as soon as you pay me your security deposit. Both of us would send our portion of the deal to the smart contract, which would hold onto and automatically exchange my door code for your security deposit on the date of the rental. If I don’t supply the door code by the rental date, the smart contract refunds your security deposit. This eliminates the fees that typically accompany using a notary or third-party mediator. Suppliers can use blockchain to record the origins of materials that they have purchased. This would allow companies to verify the authenticity of their products, along with health and ethics labels like “Organic,” “Local,” and “Fair Trade.” As reported by Forbes the&amp;nbsp;food industry is moving into the use&amp;nbsp;of blockchain to increasingly track the path and safety of food throughout the farm-to-user journey. Voting with blockchain carries the potential to eliminate election fraud and boost voter turnout, as was&amp;nbsp;tested&amp;nbsp;in the Nov. 2018 midterm elections in West Virginia. Each vote would be stored as a block on the blockchain, making them nearly impossible to tamper with. The blockchain protocol would also maintain transparency in the electoral process, reducing the personnel needed to conduct an election and provide officials with instant results. For all its complexity, blockchain’s potential as a decentralized form of record-keeping is almost without limit. From greater user privacy and heightened security to lower processing fees and fewer errors, blockchain technology may very well see applications beyond those outlined above. Bitcoin is a&amp;nbsp; digital currency &amp;nbsp;created in January 2009. It follows the ideas set out in a&amp;nbsp; whitepaper &amp;nbsp;by the mysterious and pseudonymous developer Satoshi Nakamoto, whose true identity has yet to be verified. Bitcoin offers the promise of lower transaction fees than traditional online payment mechanisms and is operated by a decentralized authority, unlike government-issued currencies. There are no physical bitcoins, only balances kept on a public ledger in the cloud, that – along with all Bitcoin transactions – is verified by a massive amount of computing power. Bitcoins are not issued or backed by any banks or governments, nor are individual bitcoins valuable as a commodity. Despite it not being&amp;nbsp; legal tender , Bitcoin charts high on popularity, and has triggered the launch of hundreds of other virtual currencies collectively referred to as&amp;nbsp; Altcoins. Understanding Bitcoin Bitcoin is a type of&amp;nbsp; cryptocurrency. Balances of Bitcoin tokens are kept using public and private &quot;keys,&quot; which are long strings of numbers and letters linked through the mathematical&amp;nbsp; encryption &amp;nbsp;algorithm that was used to create them. The public key (comparable to a bank account number) serves as the address which is published to the world and to which others may send bitcoins. The private key (comparable to an ATM PIN) is meant to be a guarded secret and only used to authorize Bitcoin transmissions. Bitcoin keys should not be confused with a Bitcoin wallet, which is a physical or digital device which facilitates the trading of Bitcoin and allows users to track ownership of coins. The term &quot;wallet&quot; is a bit misleading, as Bitcoin's decentralized nature means that it is never stored &quot;in&quot; a wallet, but rather decentrally on a&amp;nbsp; blockchain. Style notes: according to the official Bitcoin Foundation, the word &quot;Bitcoin&quot; is capitalized in the context of referring to the entity or concept, whereas &quot;bitcoin&quot; is written in the lower case when referring to a quantity of the currency (e.g. &quot;I traded 20 bitcoin&quot;) or the units themselves. The plural form can be either &quot;bitcoin&quot; or &quot;bitcoins.&quot; Bitcoin is also commonly abbreviated as &quot;BTC.&quot; How Bitcoin Works Bitcoin is one of the first digital currencies to use&amp;nbsp;peer-to-peer&amp;nbsp;technology to facilitate instant payments. The independent individuals and companies who own the governing computing power and participate in the Bitcoin network, also known as &quot;miners,&quot; are motivated by rewards (the release of new bitcoin) and transaction fees paid in bitcoin. These miners can be thought of as the decentralized authority enforcing the credibility of the Bitcoin network. New
    + ITALY-FX.LIVE Monitored Since: 2019-01-23 (562 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 102-115% After 1 Day Or 115-180% After 5 Days Or 140-420% After 10 Days Or 290-900% After 20 Days Or...
Program Description : ITALY FX LIMITED is interested in improving the overall profitability of the company and, therefore, decided to the need to attract new investments. Now investments are made not only by legal persons but also by private individuals. Our company has many years of experience in the foreign exchange market, received an invaluable experience in the field of trade, analytical and strategic skills, the ability to properly manage, diversify and mobilize financial resources. The organizational structure of our company involves many departments, the staff of each of which aims to achieve the highest results. The team of the best professionals in the industry, others specialists with extensive experience and multi-faceted talents in one place.
    + SPACEWAVE CASH Monitored Since: 2018-12-07 (609 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 1% Hourly For 7 Days (168% ROI)
Program Description : Security Check ...Security Check Before Accessing www.spacewave.cash Anti-DDoS &amp; Security by CloudProtection
    + Profit Time Monitored Since: 2019-04-11 (484 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Paying | Users rating: 18.00 | Minimum spend: 5 | Maximum spend: 5000 | See more details...
Program Plans : 255% After 20 Minutes (Fully Instant Withdrawal) / 270% After 6 Hours (Fully Instant Withdrawal) / 3...
Program Description : Profit Time Investment Company was founded in 2017 with a clear mission; providing investors with low cost access to foreign exchange markets. Profit Time investment company offers high yield investment packages. Our team consists of members with many years of experience in investment and Forex trading. Profit Time offers a wide range of investment solutions for both individuals and corporate depending on their investment objectives and requirements such as Forex, Gold , Bonds and Stock trading.
    + btc24.biz Monitored Since: 2019-05-15 (450 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 0.2-0.38% Hourly For 30 Days
Program Description : If you’re looking for a trustworthy platform to grow your capital, you’re in the right spot! BTC24 is an excellent trust management platform, where you get the service with satisfaction. You don’t have to worry about any other thing, as we offer you a get-paid hourly service with minimum deposit as low as 0.002 BTC. Interest is applied to your account every hour. Once it has been added to your account balance, you can either reinvest or you can withdraw anytime. Our website is secured with Cloudflare with encrypted SSL, which checks for to all transactions as well as verifies our authentication and encrypts all information. Our advanced FAQ has replies to 99% of your questions, however if you still need our support, you are more than welcome to contact our 24/7 support team. Experience the lightning-fast process for deposits and withdrawals every single time. Your earnings are always one click away and in a flash you receive it instantly. BTC24 trust management service focus on client satisfaction. Our all thoughts are always to maintain and improve our service to satisfy our clients. BTC24 offer generous rewards for inviting your friends and famiy. The passive income through our referral system is highly significant and recognised by our clients. Our regular affiliate program applies to all of our members from the moment they sign up for an account with us; simply share your referral link with friends, and you’ll earn 7%-3% for up to two levels from their active deposit. Regional Representatives provides you with the opportunity to earn 10%-5% two level commission. Support and advertise our project in your region, become our partner, and you will be financially awarded. As an extra layer of security, we provide data encryption to make sure that no one other than you has access to your account. We use a cloud DNS setup combined with a DDoS-protected dedicated server to deliver our services anytime, anywhere. Latest News! - Stay updated about BTC24! Check our News Section frequently for recent updates... Read our News
    + Web Profit Monitored Since: 2019-11-10 (271 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Paying | Users rating: 4.80 | Minimum spend: 10 | Maximum spend: 100000 | See more details...
Program Plans : 132% After 1 Day (Instant Payment) / 190% After 5 Day (Instant Payment) / 125% After 10 Hour (Instan...
Program Description : Web Profit created by professional traders with years of experience, hard-working, systematized and accurately carrying out objectives, is an active participant of crypto trading. At the moment, we are at the stage of rapid development and expansion, regularly adding to the list of cryptocurrencies in circulation: Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Dash. Trading the most expensive and popular cryptocurrencies in the world with the use of strategies, technical resources and experience gained over several years of activity. Web Profit is an innovative and practical investment program. We trade with digital funds online which welcomes members all over the world. Our goal is not to be the biggest, but the best. Our vision is to satisfy our investors financial needs and help them succeed. We are unlike any other investment you have ever seen before. Web Profit is built with sustainability and longevity in mind. We offer slightly faster than the usual HYIP returns seen anywhere else. Reason being we are not a normal HYIP but a true payment investment company that can guarantee your funds and that are truly sustainable over an infinite period of time. There is no better time than now to take the next step on the path to financial freedom.
    + Power Battery Group Monitored Since: 2018-11-19 (627 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 1% Weekly Profit [$50 And More], 2% Weekly Profit [$15000 And More], 3% Weekly Profit [$50000 And Mo...
Program Description : Power Battery Group HOME Sign up Login About Us FAQ Rules Support Rate us NEXT GENERATION POWER AND PERFORMANCE POWER BATTERY GROUP FIND OUT MORE Investment activity 0 days Since 19/11/2018 OUR INVESTMENT PLANS 1% weekly profit From 50 USD and more Term 1050 days Referral commission 3% Principal included Withdrawals processed no more than 6 working days 150% total return Invest and earn 150% 2% weekly profit From 15000 USD and more Term 1050 days Referral commission 5% Principal included Withdrawals processed no more than 5 working days 300% total return Invest and earn 300% 3% weekly profit From 50000 USD and more Term 1050 days Referral commission 10% Principal included Withdrawals processed no more than 3 working days 450% total return Invest and earn 450% About Power Battery Group When it comes to reliable, powerful, innovative batteries and accumulators for companies and private users, there is no better choice than advanced engineering and manufacturing solutions from the company Power Battery Group. Our goal is to secure the power supply chain all times, in the most reliable way, and to make it simple for our customers. We strive to the deliver outstanding service, innovative products and customizable, robust and reliable solutions that meet the demands of today\'s energy provision and to prepare for tomorrows challenges. Power Battery Group is uniquely positioned to benefit long-term from emerging demand for intelligent micro-energy grids and the increasing demand for reliable renewable energy sources that will grow over the coming years. From smart li-ion batteries, industrial battery packs, chargers, docking stations, vehicle cradles to power sub-systems - our robust in-house electrical and mechanical design and engineering team have extensive experience to deliver the most optimum power solutions for power system environments where health, life, safety or significant revenue is dependent upon product reliability. We understand the requirements of the industries we serve, and offer products and services to meet those needs. Our distribution network allows us to provide local inventory, distribution, and technical support. We also offer application engineering assistance, strategic warehousing, system solutions, and emergency shipping. Beyond our standard battery and power offerings, our cutting-edge manufacturing facilities and robust engineering teams are dedicated to the design and manufacture of smart li-ion battery packs, smart chargers, power sub-systems - powering portable, motive and stationary applications. Our collaborative approach, combined with value-added services such as engineering expertise, inventory management, EDI capabilities and supply chain solutions - provide for a unique and tailored partnership that translates to increased operational efficiency, reduced financial risk and a value proposition that is unmatched. With products ranging from simple batteries to huge multi-megawatt grid-connected battery systems operating in tough environments like remote mountainous or desert regions, coastal areas, or critical datacenter applications, our products have been put to the test in commercial revenue service, and are unmatched in performance and safety. Leverage our expertise so you can focus on your business. HOME Sign up Login About Us FAQ Rules Support Rate us All Rights Reserved. Power Battery Group
    + chocolast.biz Monitored Since: 2019-08-13 (360 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 2% Hourly Forever, 5% Hourly For 33 Hours, 7% Hourly For 48 Hours, 80% Daily For 3 Days, 12% Hourly ...
Program Description : Security Check ...Security Check Before Accessing www.chocolast.biz Anti-DDoS &amp; Security by CloudProtection
    + vizzgo.com Monitored Since: 2019-12-13 (238 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 0.50% every calendar day for 10 days, principal returned
Program Description : Bot Verification Verifying that you are not a robot ...
    + Fast Multi Limited Monitored Since: 2018-12-02 (614 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : Up To 18% Hourly For 10 Hours , 145% After 18 Hours
Program Description : Partner program it way to earn top commissions on our site. Become affiliate Wind mining LIMITED. You can to start promoting our company on your websites or in your newsletters. Then watch how your referral commissions grow. Fast Multi Limited offers lucrative cryptocurrency market investments. Profitable operations and high yield are achieved through the use of modern systems for the cloud Bitcoin mining. The company cooperates with the largest farms in several countries (United Kingdom, United States of America, German, Japan, and China). Together, we have formed a large enough network that has high performance and strong potential. Wind Mining Limited technical experts possess the necessary knowledge and are in close cooperation with financial analysts and traders on cryptocurrency exchanges ready to make a profit on a consistent basis, and to develop and influence the development of Bitcoin industry as a whole.
    + brandee.io Monitored Since: 2019-08-30 (343 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 0.50% every calendar day for lifetime, principal included
Program Description : After the first purchase you will receive 10&amp;nbsp; back instantly to your account. You can investigate all functions including withdraw after the first purchase.
    + Gold Stream Monitored Since: 2019-12-18 (233 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Paying | Users rating: 6.60 | Minimum spend: 10 | Maximum spend: 6000 | See more details...
Program Plans : 35% Hourly For 4 Hours / 40% Hourly For 4 Hours / 50% Hourly For 4 Hours
Program Description : We offer a single level referral program where you can earn 7.5% of your downlines' new deposits into our company. This is non-negotiable and is only available to active members with active deposits. Financial stability is achieved only through hard work. True! But we can make it easier for you. We can help you maintain a stable and profitable portfolio by providing you with the perfect opportunity. Your financial stability guarantee is backed by an aggressively smart team of consultants who are masters of their craft and share a common goal, and that is to succeed in all undertakings presented to them at any given time. There is no perfect time than now. Risk and be wealthy or never have the chance to be wealthy at all. Wise people know what to choose. Lazy people choose not to risk at all. Home &amp;nbsp; | &amp;nbsp; About Us &amp;nbsp; | &amp;nbsp; Banners &amp;nbsp; | &amp;nbsp; Login &amp;nbsp; | &amp;nbsp; Questions &amp;nbsp; | &amp;nbsp; Contact Us
    + larbitrage.com Monitored Since: 2019-01-04 (581 days) | Monitoring Banners | Go to Project | Rate! | Visit Program Details
Current Status:   Not Monitored! | Users rating: 0.00 | Minimum spend: 0 | Maximum spend: 0 | See more details...
Program Plans : 1.5% Daily For 30 Days (+principal)
Program Description : LArbitrage Home &amp;middot; FAQ &amp;middot; Rules &amp;middot; Sign up &amp;middot; Login &amp;middot; Support&amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp; Member login Username: Password: &amp;nbsp; Password recovery Info Started &amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp; &amp;nbsp; Dec 31, 2018 Running days 4 Our program is intended for people willing to achieve their financial freedom but unable to do so because they\'re not financial experts. LArbitrage is a long term high yield private loan program, backed up by Forex market trading and investing in various funds and activities. Profits from these investments are used to enhance our program and increase its stability for the long term. 1.5% daily for 30 days&lt;/a&gt; Plan Spent Amount ($) Daily Profit (%) Plan 1 $10.00 - $500.00 1.50 Calculate your profit &amp;gt;&amp;gt; All payments are made to your account Daily. Minimum spend is $10 and the maximum is $500. Use our referral program and earn up to 1.00% of referral deposits! Our first level referral bonuses: Name From To Commision (%) Level A 1 and more 1.00 All Rights Reserved. LArbitrage
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